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Using Git

Git is a free and open source version control system that helps you track changes to your projects, allowing for a simple and efficient workflow.

Learn about version control and keeping your projects organized with this Git cheatsheet.

Index

  1. Global Settings
  2. Setup
  3. Help
  4. General
  5. Reset
  6. Update and Delete
  7. Branch
  8. Merge
  9. Stash
  10. Gitignore and Gitkeep
  11. Log
  12. Compare
  13. Releases and Version Tags
  14. Collaborate
  15. Archive / Troubleshooting / Security
  16. Reflog

1. Global Settings


2. Setup


See where Git is located: which git

Get the version of Git: git --version

Create an alias (shortcut) for git status: git config --global alias.st status

3. Help


Help: git help

4. General


Initialize Git: git init

Get everything ready to commit: git add .

Get custom file ready to commit: git add index.html

Commit changes: git commit -m "Message"

Add and commit in one step: git commit -am "Message"

Remove files from Git: git rm index.html

Update all changes: git add -u

Remove file but do not track anymore: git rm --cached index.html

Move or rename files: git mv index.html dir/index_new.html

Undo modifications (restore files from latest commited version): git checkout -- index.html

Restore file from a custom commit (in current branch): git checkout 6eb715d -- index.html

5. Reset


Go back to commit: git revert 073791e7dd71b90daa853b2c5acc2c925f02dbc6

Soft reset (move HEAD only; neither staging nor working dir is changed): git reset --soft 073791e7dd71b90daa853b2c5acc2c925f02dbc6

Undo latest commit: git reset --soft HEAD~

Mixed reset (move HEAD and change staging to match repo; does not affect working dir): git reset --mixed 073791e7dd71b90daa853b2c5acc2c925f02dbc6

Hard reset (move HEAD and change staging dir and working dir to match repo): git reset --hard 073791e7dd71b90daa853b2c5acc2c925f02dbc6

6. Update and Delete


Test-Delete untracked files: git clean -n

Delete untracked files (not staging): git clean -f

Unstage (undo adds): git reset HEAD index.html

Update most recent commit (also update the commit message): git commit --amend -m "New Message"

7. Branch


Show branches: git branch

Create branch: git branch branchname

Change to branch: git checkout branchname

Create and change to new branch: git checkout -b branchname

Rename branch: git branch -m branchname new_branchname or: git branch --move branchname new_branchname

Show all completely merged branches with current branch: git branch --merged

Delete merged branch (only possible if not HEAD): git branch -d branchname or: git branch --delete branchname

Delete not merged branch: git branch -D branch_to_delete

8. Merge


True merge (fast forward): git merge branchname

Merge to master (only if fast forward): git merge --ff-only branchname

Merge to master (force a new commit): git merge --no-ff branchname

Stop merge (in case of conflicts): git merge --abort

Stop merge (in case of conflicts): git reset --merge // prior to v1.7.4

Merge only one specific commit: git cherry-pick 073791e7

Rebase: git checkout branchname » git rebase master or: git merge master branchname (The rebase moves all of the commits in master onto the tip of branchname.)

Cancel rebase: git rebase --abort

Squash multiple commits into one: git rebase -i HEAD~3 (source)

9. Stash


Put in stash: git stash save "Message"

Show stash: git stash list

Show stash stats: git stash show stash@{0}

Show stash changes: git stash show -p stash@{0}

Use custom stash item and drop it: git stash pop stash@{0}

Use custom stash item and do not drop it: git stash apply stash@{0}

Delete custom stash item: git stash drop stash@{0}

Delete complete stash: git stash clear

10. Gitignore and Gitkeep


About: https://help.github.com/articles/ignoring-files

Useful templates: https://github.com/github/gitignore

Add or edit gitignore: nano .gitignore

Track empty dir: touch dir/.gitkeep

11. Log


Show commits: git log

Show oneline-summary of commits: git log --oneline

Show oneline-summary of commits with full SHA-1: git log --format=oneline

Show oneline-summary of the last three commits: git log --oneline -3

Show only custom commits: git log --author="Sven" git log --grep="Message" git log --until=2013-01-01 git log --since=2013-01-01

Show only custom data of commit: git log --format=short git log --format=full git log --format=fuller git log --format=email git log --format=raw

Show changes: git log -p

Show every commit since special commit for custom file only: git log 6eb715d.. index.html

Show changes of every commit since special commit for custom file only: git log -p 6eb715d.. index.html

Show stats and summary of commits: git log --stat --summary

Show history of commits as graph: git log --graph

Show history of commits as graph-summary: git log --oneline --graph --all --decorate

12. Compare


Compare modified files: git diff

Compare modified files and highlight changes only: git diff --color-words index.html

Compare modified files within the staging area: git diff --staged

Compare branches: git diff master..branchname

Compare branches like above: git diff --color-words master..branchname^

Compare commits: git diff 6eb715d git diff 6eb715d..HEAD git diff 6eb715d..537a09f

Compare commits of file: git diff 6eb715d index.html git diff 6eb715d..537a09f index.html

Compare without caring about spaces: git diff -b 6eb715d..HEAD or: git diff --ignore-space-change 6eb715d..HEAD

Compare without caring about all spaces: git diff -w 6eb715d..HEAD or: git diff --ignore-all-space 6eb715d..HEAD

Useful comparings: git diff --stat --summary 6eb715d..HEAD

Blame: git blame -L10,+1 index.html

13. Releases and Version Tags


Show all released versions: git tag

Show all released versions with comments: git tag -l -n1

Create release version: git tag v1.0.0

Create release version with comment: git tag -a v1.0.0 -m 'Message'

Checkout a specific release version: git checkout v1.0.0

14. Collaborate


Show remote: git remote

Show remote details: git remote -v

Add remote upstream from GitHub project: git remote add upstream https://github.com/user/project.git

Add remote upstream from existing empty project on server: git remote add upstream ssh://root@123.123.123.123/path/to/repository/.git

Fetch: git fetch upstream

Fetch a custom branch: git fetch upstream branchname:local_branchname

Merge fetched commits: git merge upstream/master

Merge automatically accepting the changes made to the current branch git pull --strategy recursive -X ours origin master

Merge automatically accepting the changes made to the current branch git pull --strategy recursive -X theirs origin master

Remove origin: git remote rm origin

Show remote branches: git branch -r

Show all branches: git branch -a

Create and checkout branch from a remote branch: git checkout -b local_branchname upstream/remote_branchname

Compare: git diff origin/master..master

Push (set default with -u): git push -u origin master

Push: git push origin master

Force-Push: git push origin master --force

Pull: git pull

Pull specific branch: git pull origin branchname

Fetch a pull request on GitHub by its ID and create a new branch: git fetch upstream pull/ID/head:new-pr-branch

Clone to localhost: git clone https://github.com/user/project.git or: git clone ssh://user@domain.com/~/dir/.git

Clone to localhost folder: git clone https://github.com/user/project.git ~/dir/folder

Clone specific branch to localhost: git clone -b branchname https://github.com/user/project.git

Delete remote branch (push nothing): git push origin :branchname or: git push origin --delete branchname

15. Archive


Create a zip-archive: git archive --format zip --output filename.zip master

Export/write custom log to a file: git log --author=sven --all > log.txt

16. Reflog


Often useful when needing to recover "lost" references as it tracks your reference history rather than your commit history.

View all changes to HEAD: git reflog or: git reflog show HEAD

View all changes to a branch: git reflog show <branch>

View all changes to a stash: git reflog <stash>

Additionally: git reflog show is an alias for: git log -g --abbrev-commit --pretty=oneline, and accepts the same options as git log

Further information: https://git-scm.com/docs/git-reflog

Troubleshooting

Ignore files that have already been committed to a Git repository: http://stackoverflow.com/a/1139797/1815847

Security

Hide Git on the web via .htaccess: RedirectMatch 404 /\.git (more info here: http://stackoverflow.com/a/17916515/1815847)